Peru, 2003
Country name: Republic of Indonesia 
Governement type: republic
National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August 
Historical background: Indonesia is the world's largest archipelago. Its earliest inhabitants were originated in India or Burma. Powerful groups such as the Buddhist Srivijaya empire and the Hindu Mataram kingdom appeared in Java and Sumatra towards the end of the 7th century. The last important kingdom to remain Hindu was the Majapahit, which was founded in the 13th century. By this time, a strong Muslim empire had developed with its centre at Malacca on the Malay Peninsula. Its influence was shortlived and it fell to the Portuguese in 1511. The Dutch displaced the Portuguese and began making inroads into Indonesia. The Dutch took control in the early 19th century and by the early 20th century, the entire archipelago - including Aceh and Bali - was under their control. Burgeoning nationalism combined with Japanese occupation of the archipelago during WWII served to weaken Dutch resolve, and it finally transferred sovereignty to the new Indonesian republic in 1949. Soekarno, became President. In 1957, after a rudderless period of parliamentary democracy, Soekarno overthrew the parliament, declared martial law, and initiated a more authoritarian style of government. In 1966, General Soeharto, wrested presidential power from him in 1966. By March 1998 Soeharto was out of touch with the people. By the end of May that year he was out of office and the vice-president, Jusuf Habibie, was installed and tried to settle the East Timor issue. This country became independent in 1999. On 23 July 2001, the People's Consultative Assembly elected Vice President Megawati Sukarnoputri in his place. 
Geographic coordinates:
5 00 S, 120 00 E 
Map: Indonesia
Highest point: Nevado Huascarán 6,768 m
Border countries: East Timor, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea 
Capital: Jakarta
Major cities: Surabaya, Bandung, Medan, Semarang, Palembang, Ujung Pandang, Malang, Padang, Surakarta, Kupang, Djokjakarta, Banjarmasin
Population: 234,9 millions (2003)
Density: 120.52 hab./km²
Life expectancy: 69 years
Ethnic groups: Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%
Languages: Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects
Religion: Muslim 88%, Protestant 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%
Currency: Indonesian rupiah 
GDP per capita: € 3,100  (2002 est)
Internet country code: .id

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red. Flag.
National anthem: listen the anthem illustrated with the Indonesia coat of arms.
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